COLLISION GLOSSARY

Accident Forgiveness: In most states, customers who have not had an at-fault accident in the previous five years qualify for this program. Accident forgiveness is when insurance carriers don't add a surcharge to your premium after you are at-fault in an accident, or your deductible may reduce over time. Check with your insurance provider, there may be an additional charge for this coverage.
ACE™ Body Design: ACE™ is an acronym for Advanced Compatibility Engineering describing Honda’s next-generation vehicle construction, designed to help minimize the effects of mismatched vehicles (large vs. small or heavy vs. light) striking each other.  The design helps protect vehicle occupants by dissipating the energy of a crash.  
Act of God: Natural occurrence beyond human control or influence. Includes such acts of nature as; hurricanes, earthquakes, and floods. This is usually covered under comprehensive insurance and is not covered by liability and collision insurance. 
Actual Cash Value: Most auto insurance coverage only reimburses you for the actual cash value of your car. This is the value of the vehicle at the time it was damaged, stolen or destroyed. After a loss, your company will review the condition of your car's body, interior, tires, and additional equipment. Based on the pre-accident condition of the car, a claim adjuster locates similar models for sale by private parties and dealer quotations in your area, and uses those prices to determine the Actual Cash Value. See Gap Insurance.
Additional Insured or Additional Interest: A person or entity (such as a leasing company), other than the named insured, who is protected under the auto policy.  If an auto is leased, the leasing company may want to be listed as an Additional Insured as well as a lien holder or loss payee.  This protects the leasing company if it's named in a lawsuit for an accident caused by a policyholder. 
Adjuster: (same as Claims Adjuster) A person employed by an insurance company that investigates and settles claims. An adjuster evaluates each claim brought by policyholders or claimants and then recommends payment based on the coverage available under the insurance policy.
Aftermarket Parts: (same as Imitation Parts) – New replacement parts that were not made by the original equipment manufacturer (OEM). Imitation parts offer a price-based alternative, but may not provide the same fit, finish, and structural strength. They may not perform to Honda’s exacting specifications so they may not return the car to its full pre-loss condition. Aftermarket parts are often referred to on your estimate with these names or abbreviations:
A/M    Aftermarket / Automotive replacement parts
QRP Quality Replacement Parts
CP     Competitive Parts
LKQ   Like Kind and Quality
For more information on aftermarket parts.
Agreed Value: A policy available for collectible, custom or antique vehicles that do not depreciate in value as the average car does. When your policy is written, you and your insurance company come to an "agreed value" of what will be paid out in the event of a total loss instead of actual cash value.
Airbag: Part of a vehicle safety system that consists of a bag that inflates during a crash. It’s purpose is to slow an occupant's motion as evenly as possible while preventing impact with the interior of the vehicle. Today’s advanced airbags are highly precise devises, capable of incremental inflation based on the severity of the crash as well as size and position of the vehicles occupant. They are supplemental restraints and work best in combination with seatbelts. For more information, visit AirbagAware.Honda.com.
Air Bag: Part of a vehicle safety system that consists of a bag that inflates during a crash. It’s purpose is to slow an occupant's motion as evenly as possible while preventing impact with the interior of the vehicle. Today’s advanced airbags are highly precise devises, capable of incremental inflation based on the severity of the crash as well as size and position of the vehicles occupant. They are supplemental restraints and work best in combination with seatbelts. For more information, visit AirbagAware.Honda.com.
Air-Drying: The process of drying paint by exposing it to air at normal temperatures. Water-borne paint, a new technology in the US, uses air-drying as opposed to standard solvent based paints which may use heat to facilitate drying.
Amendment: A change to the basic policy contract. 
Anti-Theft Device: Devices designed to either reduce the chance a vehicle will be stolen, or assist in its recovery. Examples include car alarms, keyless entry, starter disablers, motion detectors, the “Club”, and recovery systems.
Anti-Theft Recovery System: An electronic device which you activate in the event that your vehicle is stolen, which then emits a signal that can be used to locate your car.  Installation of such a device may make you eligible for an auto insurance discount.
Appraisal: A written estimation of the value of property or the extent of damage. Damage appraisals may be completed by an insurance adjuster, vehicle repair specialist, or body shop estimator.
Arbitration: A process of settling a dispute through an impartial party rather than in the courts. Both parties agree to be bound by the decision of the arbitrator.
Assigned Risk Plan: A state-managed auto insurance plan for individuals who cannot obtain conventional liability coverage because of poor driving records.  Such drivers may get coverage through a state assigned-risk plan, which requires that each insurance company must accept a proportionate share of these individuals.
Assured: Means the same as an insured, policyholder, or someone who has an insurance policy.
At-fault: The party that is legally liable for the damages in an accident.
For more information on at-fault.
Base Coat/Clear Coat System: A paint system in which the color effect is provided by a highly pigmented base coat. Gloss and durability are provided by a subsequent clear coat.
Bench: A heavy metal platform used to restore a vehicle's structural geometry to factory specifications. This is done by securing a portion of the vehicle to the platform, then pulling appropriate areas of the vehicle into place using special clamps, chains and hydraulic winches. This is also referred to as a Frame Machine, Frame Rack or simply Rack.
Binder: A temporary agreement that provides proof of coverage until you receive a permanent policy.
Blue Book: A publication for determining of value for used automobiles and trucks. The full name of the publication is Kelley Blue Book.
Blueprinting: A highly detailed statement of work needed to properly and completely repair a collision-damaged vehicle including all labor, operations, parts, paint, and other materials. A blueprint is generally written during and after a car is completely torn-down to determine the full extent of damage including any damage that may have been hidden when the original estimate was written.
Bodily Injury: An injury sustained by a person.
Bodily Injury Liability: Insurance which pays for medical expenses of the other driver and his passengers to the limit of your policy.
Body Filler: A paste-like material ordinarily mixed with a catalyst material used to fill large imperfections on a vehicle surface.
Body Putty: A paste-like material used for filling small imperfections on a vehicle surface.
Bumper Absorber: On all late model cars, the energy-absorbing, foam-like material that is situated between the outside bumper fascia and the inner bumper reinforcement on both the front and rear of a vehicle.  (Also see Bumper fascia and Bumper Reinforcement)
Bumper Fascia: (FAY-sha) – On all late model cars, the fascia is that part of a bumper that is visible on the outside of the vehicle, is painted usually the same color as the body, and serves as a large portion of either the front or back of the vehicle.  (Also see Bumper Absorber and Bumper Reinforcement.)
Bumper Reinforcement: On all late model cars, the bumper reinforcement is that part of the bumper that secures the outer bumper fascia and energy absorber to the vehicle’s body rails securing the bumper subassembly to the car, front and rear.
Business/Commercial Use: This means that you mainly use your car for business purposes (such as delivery, service, and sales calls) or work-related. Commuting to and from work is not considered business use.
Carrier: The insurance company that issues the insurance policy. The term refers to the fact that the company carries (or assumes) certain risks for the policyholder. 
Casualty: Liability or loss resulting from an accident.
Casualty: Liability or loss resulting from an accident.
Catastrophe: A disaster affecting a specific geographic area. Catastrophes often cause injury or even death; most result in extensive property damage. Hurricanes, floods, tornadoes, and even large hailstorms are typical examples of catastrophes.
Certificate of Financial Responsibility: Depending on the state requirement, this is a form certifying that coverage has been purchased to meet the state's Financial Responsibility laws. Such forms include: SR-22, FR-44, SR-50, or any other State form.
Chip Guard: A chip resistant, protective coating normally applied to lower panels to help prevent sharp stones, debris, etc. from chipping the paint finish. 
Chipping: The removal of paint from a vehicle body surface by means of impact of sharp stones, etc. This usually happens on the leading edge of a vehicle body, like on the front edge of a hood, or near the rear edge of a wheel opening.
Claim: Any request or demand for payment under the terms of the insurance policy to cover an incurred loss. 
Claimant: A person who makes an insurance claim.
Claims Adjuster: (same as Adjuster) A person employed by an insurance company that investigates and settles claims. An adjuster evaluates each claim brought by policyholders or claimants and then recommends payment based on the coverage available under the insurance policy.
Clause: A section of an insurance policy that explains, clarifies or defines the conditions of coverage.
Clear or Clear Coat: A coat of clear material (basically paint without the color pigment) applied on top of a color coat as a means of protecting the finish, and adding luster and durability. Usually the color coat and clear coat are applied as a system in a repair to ensure color and luster continuity across the entire vehicle surface.
Coat: A single layer of paint on a surface.
Collateral: Asset (such as a vehicle) pledged to a lender until a loan is repaid. If the borrower defaults, the lender has the legal right to seize the collateral and sell it to pay off the loan. Comprehensive and Collision coverages are required by lenders when a car is the collateral for a loan.
Collision Insurance: Optional coverage for when your car is damaged by a collision with another vehicle or object. Examples of this include a collision with a tree, trashcan or garage door. Collision Insurance may also provide coverage if a car rolls over or if you hit a pothole that severely damages your car. This insurance applies only to your car and doesn’t cover whatever the car collided with – which is covered by property damage liability insurance. It pays for damage to your car (up to the actual cash value of your vehicle, minus your deductible) without regard to who caused an accident.
CollisionLink: Computer software used to digitally connect body shops and car dealers for the purpose of correctly and efficiently ordering collision repair parts.
Commuting: Means that you mainly use the car to drive to and from work or school.
Comparative Negligence: A principle of law that, in some states, may enable claimants to recover a portion of their damages even when they are partially at fault, or negligent. Each party's negligence is compared to the others and a claimant's recovery can be reduced by the percentage of his or her own negligence.
Competitive Estimate or Competitive Bid: The act of acquiring more than one bid for collision repair work. No law requires a consumer to seek more than one bid for collision repair. However, your insurance company may request a competitive bid, especially if you secure a bid from a shop that does not subscribe to that insurance company’s Direct Repair Program. Additionally, if you are paying for the work yourself, and are unfamiliar with shops in your area, you may want to seek competitive bids as collision estimates can vary considerably. When securing competitive bids, be sure to review what each estimate includes (or does not include) regarding labor operations parts used, and type of parts used.
Competitive Parts: (same as Imitation Parts
Compounding: The action of using an abrasive polishing material either by hand or by machine.
Comprehensive Insurance: Optional coverage for when your car is stolen or damaged in ways that don’t involve a collision. Examples include: fire, theft, hail, glass breakage, vandalism, damage from an animal, flood, earthquakes, riot and civil commotion.
Conditions: The portion of the insurance contract which outlines the duties and responsibilities of both the insured and the insurance company.
Contributory Negligence: A principle of law that, in some states, may prevent claimants from recovering any portion of their damages if they are even partially at fault, or negligent.
Corrosion: Degradation of the bare, unprotected metal substrate by oxidation, commonly referred to as rusting. This process is worsened by the introduction of water and salt, which is commonly found on roads in snow-belt areas of the US.  All automotive metal surfaces should be protected from corrosion by some sort of coating.
Counterfeit: A low quality imitation of an original item that is intended to deceive or defraud; not genuine; imitating something superior; something that is intended to be mistaken for an item of higher value or quality. For more information, visit AirbagAware.Honda.com
Coverage: Protection and benefits provided in an insurance policy.
Damage: Loss or harm to a person or property.
Declarations: The section of a policy that includes your name and address; the property that is being insured, its location and description, the policy period, the types and amount of insurance coverage and the premiums.
Deductible: An amount of costs you pay after an accident. Once you’ve paid the deductible, the insurance company pays the rest of the costs, up to the amount specified in your policy. A high deductible generally results in a lower premium and a low deductible results in a higher premium for the same insurance coverage.
Degreasing: The removal from the substrate (vehicle's sheet metal parts) of contaminants which would otherwise create various paint failures.
Depreciation: The decrease in value of any property due to wear, tear, and/or time. Depreciation is generally not an insurable loss.
Detailing: Final cleaning both inside and outside of vehicle, removal of overspray from under hood, trunk lids etc. as well as polishing prior to delivery of a collision-repaired vehicle.
Diminished Value: The concept that a vehicle is worth less after being collision-repaired.
Direct Repair Shop: A suggested or preferred collision repair shop of an insurance company that participates in a DRP program with that insurance company.
For more information on Direct Repair Shops.
Dollar Threshold: In certain states with no-fault auto insurance, the dollar threshold prevents individuals from suing to recover for pain and suffering unless their medical expenses exceed a specified dollar amount, called the threshold.
DRP (Direct Repair Program): A common practice in the collision repair industry whereby an insurance company and a collision repair shop have a contractual agreement which establishes business rules, repair parameters, and standardize procedures such as billing practices and record keeping. An advantage of DRPs is that they may provide additional convenience for the insured due to their relationship with the insurance company. A primary disadvantage is that many insurance companies require that their DRPs use a percentage of imitation parts in collision repairs. This may not be in the customer’s best interest. You have the right to have your vehicle repaired at a shop of your own choosing.
For more information on DRPs.
Drying: The process of change of an automotive coating from a liquid to a solid state by evaporation of solvent, evaporation of water (as in water-borne paint systems) chemical reaction of the binding medium, or a combination of these processes.
Edge-to-Edge Repair: A term denoting a complete panel repair (such as a complete fender or door) as opposed to a touch-up or spot repair.
Enamel: A paint used as a topcoat (over a primer) that forms a hard glossy surface.
Endorsements: Also called riders, endorsements are changes to the original insurance contract. Endorsements may include changing your deductibles or adding a new car to your auto insurance policy. 
Estimate: The written estimation, made by an appraiser or estimator, upon inspection of a damaged vehicle, regarding the cost required to restore the vehicle to the condition it was in immediately prior to the loss. There are sometimes hidden damages that are not visible until the vehicle is disassembled. Additional repairs needed to complete the repair are called a supplement. Insurance companies expect this to occur and have in place billing guidelines to handle this type of situation.
Exclusion: Restrictions in your insurance policy that limit or exclude coverage for certain people, property, activities, situations, etc. For example, most auto insurance policies exclude coverage for normal wear and tear, drag racing and intentional acts.
Expiration Date: The date your coverage ends. There is usually a time of day associated with this date, for example, an expiration date of 5/1/2002 at 12:01am. This means your coverage ends one minute after midnight on the date listed.
Fair Market Value: The price at which property would change hands between a willing buyer and a willing seller, where both parties have reasonable knowledge of the relevant facts and neither party is under any compulsion to buy or sell.
FEA: This is an acronym for Front End Alignment, or, depending on the vehicle, may specially indicate four-wheel-alignment.
Financial Responsibility Law: A law requiring the owner of a vehicle to show proof of financial ability to pay for negligence in causing losses to others from the operation of a motor vehicle.  In all but 3 states it is illegal to operate a vehicle without obtaining proof of insurance, although some states permit self-insurance or a financial responsibility bond.
Flex-Additive: A chemical added to automotive refinish paint which makes the paint flexible enough to adhere to flexible vehicle parts such as bumper covers.
Gap Insurance: If you are making lease or loan payments and you experience a total loss, there may be a difference (gap) between the market value of your vehicle and what you still owe on it. Gap insurance pays the difference between the actual cash value of a vehicle and the amount still to be paid on the loan. A gap policy may also cover the amount of the deductible.
Garage Location: The location where your insured car is parked most of the time. This location is usually indicated by the ZIP Code of the policyholder's primary residence. The garaging location can affect your auto insurance rates.
Gloss: The degree to which a painted surface possesses the property of reflecting light in a mirror-like manner. May also be referred to as luster.
Grace Period: Some auto insurance policies have a grace period that allows customers to make a payment after the due date. But, many companies will not accept a payment after the date shown on a cancellation notice.
Grinding: A harsh, abrasive machining process used to quickly remove old paint and rust from a vehicle surface. While grinding quickly and efficiently removes unwanted surface rust or paint, it leaves a rough surface which can be further sanded or filled with primer sealer or body putty. (Also see Sanding)
Hazardous Waste: Any unusable by-product derived from the repair and/or painting process that cannot be disposed of through normal waste disposal. These products can be potentially harmful to the environment and require special handling as well as professional disposal. Federal, state and local laws dictate how such material must be handled and disposed of.
Hit and Run: An accident caused by someone who does not stop to assist or provide information. Damages to your vehicle caused by a hit and run driver are often covered as part of uninsured or underinsured motorist insurance.
Imitation parts: (same as aftermarket parts) – New replacement parts that were not made by the original equipment manufacturer (OEM). Imitation parts offer a price-based alternative, but may not provide the same fit, finish, and structural strength. They may not perform to Honda’s exacting specifications so they may not return the car to its full pre-loss condition. Aftermarket parts are often referred to on your estimate with these names or abbreviations:
A/M    Aftermarket / Automotive replacement parts
QRP Quality Replacement Parts
CP     Competitive Parts
LKQ   Like Kind and Quality
For more information on imitation parts.
Indemnity: A principle that when a loss occurs, the insured and his vehicle should be restored to the condition they were in before the loss occurred — no better, no worse. In practice this is limited by the value of coverage and the terms specified in the insurance policy. Forms of indemnity include cash payments, repairs, replacement, and reinstatement. This is the principle upon which insurance contracts are based.
Insurance: Insurance is a system in which groups of people (such as automobile owners) who have similar chances of suffering a loss transfer their risk of loss to an insurer who pools the risk of many drivers together. The insurance company promises to reimburse the person for their covered losses in exchange for payment of the premium.
Insured: A person or organization who has or is covered by an insurance policy.
Liability: Legal responsibility or obligation for the injury or damage suffered by another person.
Liability insurance: In most states, you are legally required to have a minimum of liability insurance, which is intended to restore the other driver, passengers and vehicle to their pre-accident condition. See also: Property Damage Liability and Bodily Injury Liability.
Lien holder: A person or organization, such as a bank or leasing company, with a financial interest in property up to the amount of money borrowed or still owed on the property.
Limits of Liability: The amount specified in your policy up to which the insurance company will protect you. Limits may apply to an individual accident and/or a specific period of time. Most states have laws that specify the minimum limit that must be purchased for each type of required insurance coverage.
LKQ (Like Kind and Quality): Refers to parts salvaged or "harvested" from a vehicle, often from one that was deemed a total wreck. This category commonly includes large body assemblies such as complete bumper assemblies or complete front ends, severed from the original vehicle from the windshield forward. While LKQ parts may offer a price-based alternative, the parts used from the salvage vehicle may have already been replaced with non-OE parts, or may be structurally compromised as a result of the collision. Other factors affecting the quality of these parts include unsuitable storage, hidden damage, or removal technique.
For more information on LKQ.
Loss: The amount an insurance company pays on a claim.
Loss of Use: Compensation to a third-party claimant for financial consequences resulting from the inability to use property as the result of accident-related damage.
Loss Payee: A person or entity that is protected under the named insured’s auto policy. This is usually a lessor or a bank that loaned money to buy a car.
Masking: Temporary covering of areas on the vehicle that are not to be painted.
Melon: Slang for the head or brain, as in “Use your melon”.
For more information on using your melon.
Metallic: A term used for automotive finishes incorporating fine metallic particles in the paint to produce a somewhat sparkle effect.
No-Fault Insurance: In some states insurance companies are legally required to pay a policyholder's covered losses, regardless of who was responsible for an accident. This coverage is subject to the terms, limits and conditions of the policy contract and may pay for medical treatment, lost wages, or other accident-related expenses regardless of who caused the accident.
OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer): Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) or Original Equipment parts (OE) are replacement parts produced by the vehicle manufacturer. These are made to the same exacting specifications as the parts used to build the car.
For more information on OEM.
Paint Failure / Chalking: This paint failure is typified by a white material coming through the painted surface.
Paint Failure / Cracking: This paint failure is typified by cracks in the painted surface, not unlike the cracks seen at the bottom of a dried mud puddle.
Paint Failure / Fading: This paint failure is typified by severe fade, and can occur in any color but is more pronounced in reds whereas the color may fade from red to pink or red to orange.
Paint Failure / Fish-Eye: This paint failure is typified by a spot in the paint in the repaired area that resembles a fish eye. This is caused by contaminants on the vehicle’s surface.
Paint Failure / Hazing: This paint failure is typified when a haze or fog-like substance surrounds a repaired area.
Paint Failure / Peeling: This paint failure is typified by paint peeling off the surface of the vehicle, indicating a sever loss of adhesion.  This could be caused by any number of problems, not the least of which is improper preparation of the surface to be painted, or a mismatch of paint and primer.
Paint-less Dent Repair: A means of pulling a minor dent from a body panel that will not damage the paint and thus remove the need for post-repair refinishing.
Party (First Party, Second Party, Third Party): In an insurance contract, the policyholder (and other people specifically named in the policy, such as family members) is the first party. The insurance company is the second party in the contract. Anyone else is a third party. If you are involved in an accident you are the first party and the other driver would be a third party. 
Personal Injury Protection (PIP): A coverage in which your own insurance company pays you for medical costs, lost wages, loss of essential services normally provided by the injured person (i.e. childcare, housekeeping), and funeral costs. It is usually associated with a no-fault auto insurance system. It can sometimes also cover your passengers and/or other types of expenses. Specific protections afforded by this type of auto insurance coverage and limits on PIP payments vary widely from state to state.
Pigment: The coloring material in paint.
Pre-Accident Condition: (also Pre-Loss Condition) – The condition of the vehicle immediately before it was damaged. This includes the restoration of:
a) the function of the vehicle and all its systems 
b) the safety of the vehicle as designed by the manufacturer, including its ability to withstand and absorb subsequent impact and protect the occupants in the same manner as an undamaged vehicle 
c) the appearance of the vehicle
Premium: The amount paid by an insured to an insurance company to obtain or maintain an insurance policy. Auto insurance premiums are quoted for either 6 month or annual policy periods.
Prep: The process of washing, degreasing and lightly abrading a panel prior to applying paint.
Pretreatment (metal): This is the chemical treatment of an unpainted metal surface prior to painting, to promote adhesion and corrosion resistance.
Primary Use: What your vehicle is mainly used for; pleasure, to and from work, business, commercial, or farm.
Primer: The first layer of a paint normally applied to an unpainted surface. It is designed to protect the substrate (bare metal) and promote adhesion of the top coat.
Primer/surface, Primer/filler: A pigmented material, sprayed onto a vehicle, which acts as a primer and also has “filling” properties which will fill small imperfection’s in the surface. After sanding of the primer/surfacer, a top coat of paint will be applied.
Primer-Sealer: An undercoat which improves the adhesion of the topcoat, and which seals old painted surfaces to prevent bleed-through.
Principal Driver / Primary Driver: The person who drives the car most often.
Property Damage Liability: Pays for damage to the other driver's vehicle to the limit of your policy. There are three numbers when you buy liability coverage. They represent the liability limits (in thousands of dollars) for; per-person bodily injury, bodily injury for all persons injured in any one accident, and property damage liability. Most states require a minimum amount and insurance companies offer the option to purchase more. For example 25/50/15 means that your policy will pay up to $25,000 per person who is injured, up to a total of $50,000 for all injured in the accident and will pay up to $15,000 in property damage. If the cost of bodily injuries, or the cost of damage to property exceeds those amounts, you are responsible for the amount not covered by your insurance.
R&I: This is an acronym for Remove and Install. Refers to a part removed from a damaged vehicle to be saved and reinstalled after the repair has been completed. In many cases, to repair damage to the outside of a vehicle, interior trim, seating, etc. must be removed to make a proper repair.
R&R: This is an acronym for Remove and Replace. It refers to a part removed from a damaged vehicle that cannot be acceptably repaired. It is replaced with a new part. 
Rebuilt Part: May be either an OE or imitation part. Generally rebuilding consists of replacing only those components that may be broken or unusable and may not involve a complete disassembly and inspection. They typically come with a limited warranty (30 to 90 days). Rebuilt parts are typically supplied by an aftermarket source.
For more information on Rebuilt Parts.
Recycled Parts: Also referred to as salvage, used, reconditioned or rebuilt parts. They are sometimes obtained from junkyards and can be either OEM or aftermarket parts.
For more information on recycled parts.
Remanufactured: Remanufactured generally means parts removed from an existing vehicle that are repaired and/or refinished. Honda Genuine Remanufactured parts begin with a used part that is completely disassembled, inspected, diagnosed, cleaned and any worn or inoperative parts are replaced. The part is reassembled and tested to ensure the part meets the same specifications as the original part. Honda Genuine Remanufactured parts are literally “as good as new” and are backed by a warranty honored by Honda dealers nationwide.
For more information on remanufactured parts.
Repair Authorization: The point at which a consumer authorizes the repair to their vehicle (and in some cases contingent upon the Insurance Company settlement process). 
Replacement Cost: The cost to repair or replace an insured item at the present time, according to its current worth. 
RO: This is an acronym for repair order, also called a work order. This is the document which will be used by the body shop to keep track of the time spent, expendable materials consumed (such as paints, etc.) and parts used to repair a collision damaged vehicle.
Rubbing Compound: An abrasive paste used to smooth and polish paint films. This is also commonly known as polishing compound.
Salvage Parts: Parts that have been harvested from donor vehicles in salvage yards, or from a totaled vehicle. They may be an OE part or imitation part.
For more information on salvage parts.
Sanding: An abrasive process used to level a coated surface prior to the application of a subsequent further coat. (Also see Grinding)
Sealer: An undercoat which improves the adhesion of the topcoat, and which seals old painted surfaces to prevent bleed-through.
Select Repair Shop: Collision repair shops that participate in one or more insurance company DRP programs. Vehicle owners have the right to choose a body shop whether it is part of a DRP program or not.
Solid Color: A coating which contains only colored pigments, as opposed to a coating which contain small metallic flakes to create metallic paints.
Solvent: A liquid, usually volatile, which is used to reduce paint or primer viscosity. Solvents evaporate during application and drying of paint and therefore do not become a part of the dried film. 
Steering: Any attempt by an insurer to get the consumer to take their vehicle to a shop not of their own choosing. Steering is illegal in most states. Vehicle owners have the right to have their vehicle repaired at a shop of their choosing.
Subrogation: Refers to circumstances (such as when another party is responsible for an accident) in which your insurance company has paid expenses for medical and vehicle repair and then tries to recoup the expenses it paid from the other party or their insurance company. 
Substrate: The uncoated/unpainted body panel surface.
Supplement: Additional repairs needed to complete the repair that were not identified on the original estimate. It is often impossible to identify all damage to a vehicle until it's disassembled.
Surcharge: An increase in your auto insurance premium due to an at-fault accident or a moving violation.
Tack Rag: A specially treated cloth used to wipe a surface just prior to painting to remove any dust or contaminates that may inhibit paint adhesion or cause imperfections in the paint.
Tape Marking: The imprint caused by applying masking tape on to a newly-applied paint film before it has time to harden. 
Term: The length of time for which an insurance policy is in force.
Thinner: A blend of solvents added to paint to reduce it to the correct consistency for application.
Three Coat Color: A topcoat color which consists of three parts, a base coat, a mid coat and a clear. This is also referred to as a Tri-coat. 
Threshold Level: Under some no-fault insurance laws, the threshold level represents the degree of injury a claimant must establish before being allowed to sue the negligent party. The threshold may be verbal (regarding the severity of the injuries) or a dollar amount, or both. For example, with a threshold of $5,000, an injured person may sue if his/her injuries and other economic damages (rehabilitation expenses, loss of income, etc.) exceed $5,000.
Tint and Blend: The process of mixing toners to match the existing paint finish, then blending or overlapping the color into the adjacent panel to avoid color match problems.
Topcoat: The final layers of paint whose role is primarily decorative. However the topcoat often provides protection to ultra violet light present in sunlight. 
Tort: A wrongful act, whether intentional or accidental (negligence), resulting in legal liability for damage or injury. Automobile liability insurance is purchased to protect one from suits arising from unintentional torts. Some states ask you to select a tort provision. In these states, you can limit your right to sue for non-monetary damages (like pain and suffering) in exchange for a reduced auto insurance premium. 
Total Loss: A vehicle is considered a total loss when the collision, fire or water damage is so extensive that repair costs would exceed the value of the vehicle.  Depending on the state in which the vehicle is insured, a total loss may be defined differently. For example, in some states a total loss may be equal to the vehicles Actual Cash value (ACV) while in other states a total loss may be a percentage of the vehicle’s ACV – usually about 80%. Generally speaking, if the repair cost is anywhere near the vehicle’s ACV, the insurance company will total the car because subsequent supplemental repair claims encountered during the repair process could easily push repair cost beyond the ACV amount.
Ultra Violet Light: That portion of the light spectrum which is largely responsible for the degradation of paint.
Umbrella Insurance: Provides high limits of additional liability coverage above the limits of your homeowner's and auto policy. In addition, it provides coverage that may be excluded by other liability policies.
Unibody: A type of vehicle body construction in which the outer skin, roof, and floor are formed and assembled to produce a single unit providing structural strength and rigidity. This concept was introduced in the 1920’s but was not widely used in mass-produced automobiles until the late 1970’s. Prior to this time, vehicle bodies were built and bolted to separate steel chassis. Conventional pick-up trucks are still built in this manner.
Uninsured/Underinsured Motorist Coverage: Pays (up to the coverage limit) for injuries for you and other passengers in your vehicle, and property damage caused by a hit-and-run driver or a motorist without liability insurance. It will also pay when your medical and car repair bills are higher than the other driver´s liability coverage.
Usage: This refers to the primary function or purpose in which you intend to operate your vehicle. For example, if you primarily drive your car to and from work, the usage is considered "commute". If you are self-employed and primarily drive to see customers, the usage is considered "business". If you are retired, your usage is considered "pleasure".
Used Parts: A part taken from another vehicle either exactly like or somewhat like yours. It may be an OE part or imitation part. It is usually inspected visually for damage and installed on a vehicle if it appears to be OK.
For more information on used parts.
VIN: This is an acronym for Vehicle Identification Number, a number unique for every single vehicle produced. It serves to not only identify a specific vehicle but also contains coded information relative to such things as the vehicles’ country of origin, manufacturing plant, trim code, drive train, and interior and exterior color just to name a few. This number helps the body shop order the correct replacement parts and the correct paint color for each car. Any professional estimate or Repair Order will include this number.
Warranty: A written guarantee, issued to the purchaser of an article by its manufacturer, promising to repair or replace it if necessary within a specified period of time or mileage. Use of other than Honda Genuine parts are not covered under Honda’s warranty and may nullify the warranty of associated parts and systems.
Water-borne Paint: There are two types of automotive refinish paint, solvent-borne and water-borne. The former uses a chemical to adjust the paint’s viscosity and allows it to be sprayed, the latter uses water, which is more environmentally friendly. Water-borne is relatively new in the US but has been used for years in Europe.